D.M.L.T  SYLLABUS

Eligibility: 10th or its equivalent with minimum 45% marks

Duration: 02 years (Full time) – divided into 4 seme to findsters

Syllabus:

Ist Year (Ist and 2nd Semester)

Basic Human sciences

Communicative English

Computer application

Basic Hematology

Blood Banking and immune Hematology

Clinical Pathology and parasitology

Clinical Biochemistry

Microbiology

Immunology

Histopathology & cytology

2nd Year (3rd and 4th Semester)

Applied histopathology & Cytological techniques

Applied microbiology ,serology & immunology

Organization , lab management and applied biochemistry

Quality control and standardization , total Quality management

Administration and management

Revision and internal examination

Project work /Dissertation

Practical and demonstration will be done on the basis of theory

CNYS SYLLABUS

Course 1: Certificate in Elementry Naturopathy & Yoga (C.E.N.Y.)

Six Months Course (formerly Pravesh)

Eligibility Criteria

Tenth class or equivalent exception can be made in the case of the personal who have an exception of Nature Cure & Yoga of atleast 10 years and have proficiency in reading and writing Hindi/English.

Course 2: Certiciate in Naturopathy & Yoga Technique (C.N.Y.T.)

One Year Course (formerly Upcharak)

Eligibility Criteria

Class XII (10+2) or equivalent or C.E.N.Y. Pravesh examimantion of the Parishad passed

Course 3: Diploma in Naturopathy & Yogic Science (D.N.Y.S.)

Three and Half Years Course (including six months House Job)

Eligibility Criteria

Senior Secondary (10+2) or Intermedicate or C.N.Y.T. (Formerly Upcharak) or One/Two Year Diploma in Naturopathy & Yoga form state or central Govt. Recognisd Institution of Diploma in Natuorpathy from Arogya Mandir Gorakhpur. Medical Graduate recognised by Govt. & Registered with the respective medical councils are eligible to enroll himself (M.B.B.S, M.D., M.S., B.D.S, B.A.M.S., B.U.M.S.,B. PHARMA, NURSING DEGREE) directly for the DNYS IInd year course thus they can complete the course with in two and half year duration.

There will also be an additional compulsory paper of general science (100 Marks) for eligible candidate of DNYS Ist year examination who have not studied & passed Biology at Intermediate Examination or CNYT.

  1. Admission Procedure:

A physically and mentally fit candidate who has attained the age of 17 years having the eligibile qualification of the course preferred, shall submit the prescribed enrollment form, obtainable from the office of the Parishad or study centre affiliated with the Parishad on cash Payment of rupees hundred (Rs. 100/-) or Rupess one hundred fifty (Rs. 150/-) by post along with well in advance before the commencement of the course. Selected application form duly filled in and completed must be accompanied with necessary documents. The enrollment stands cancelled automatically after a discontinuity of one regular sessions. This can be renewed on application after a payment of Rupees One Hundred. Further renewal is not allowed.

  1. Method of Teaching:

The study centres will make necessary arrangements of prescribed teaching and training according to the syllabus for the trainies enrolled through them. They can charge the arrangement fees for the same. Arrangements will be made by the Parishad also to provide practical training ith experienced Naturopaths in a reputed Nature Cure centre any where in the country. This will help in learning the practical use of different techniques and modalities of treatments and prevention of reoccurence of the disease. Only actual expenses will have to be borne by the trainee.

  1. Examination Form:

Each enrolled candidate shall be required to submit the duly filled examination form (to be made available from the office of the Parishad) along with prescribed fee. Typedor Photostats forms will not be accepted. Last date for submission of examination form for June examination is 31st March and for December examination it is 30th September. The form can be submitted in the Parishad office with a late fee of Rs. 100/- (One Hundred) upto 45 days before the examination. Form recieved after the last date shall be kept in pending for the next session if so desired by the candidate in advance.

  1. Examination Details:

All Examination centres will be decided by the Parishad and the candidate is bound to appear in the examination from the centre. In case a candidate wished to change the centre, should submit request application 30 days before the commencement of the examination with fee of Rs. 100/- (One Hundred) on which Parishad’s decision will be final.

Written examination will be organized in two sessions per day. First session will be held from 9 AM to 12 Noon and second session will be held from 2 PM to 5 PM.

There shall be only one centre in a city for 100 or more candidates. If the number is less than 100 candidates in a city the candidate will be alloted some other centre outside the city/district/state. Parishad can arrange additional centre at its own descretion.

A candidate who failed to appear in the examination on medical grounds has to submit medical certificate along with an application within fifteen days of the examination or their examination fee shall be forfeited. He has to submit his admit card along with a fee of rupees fifty with application on plain paper to appear in the examination atleast 60 days before the examination. Only one session gap is allowed in this case.

A candidate who failed in science only can appear in IInd Year examination but he has to pass this examination before IIIrd year examination of DNYS

A candidate who has failed in one written paper only, can apply for suppllimentary examination scheduled to be held with the next examination along with a fee of rupees two hundred. Acandidate can apply for rechecking after the declaration of the results with in one month along with requisite fee

Viva, Practical & Sessional/Project works is a compulsary part of the examination. Candidates who do not clear Viva, Practical & Sessional/Project work shall be declared uncsuccessful into the relevent examination. Viva, Practical & Sessional/Project work is of 100 marks each.

A candidate whose attendence is very poor during the training, will not be allowed to appear in the examinations.

Minimum pass marks for each paper, viva, practical & sessional/project work is 50%. A candidate who secured 60% or more marks,s will be declared first division. Achievement of 75% or more marks by a candidate will be distinction marks.

Unsuccessful candidate can appear in the next full examination. He/She will have to submit fresh application form along with required examination fee.

Examination details:

There shall be only one written paper in C.E.N.Y.

There shall be one written paper of 100 marks, 100 marks viva and 100 marks practical work in C.N.Y.T.

There shall be two written paper of 100 makrs each, 100 marks viva, 100 marks practical work in D.N.Y.S.

  1. Fees:

Type                     Amount (Rs/INR)

Enrollment Fee   :              100/-

Late Fee               :              200/-

Rechecking Fee  :              200/-

Science Paper Fee            :              200/-

CENY Examination Fee    :              300/-

CNYT Examination Fee    :              400/-

DNYS Ist Year Examination Fee    :              500/-

DNYS IInd Year Examination Fee  :              600/-

DNYS IIIrd Year Examination Fee :              800/-

Parishad Prabha (Subscription Compulsory) Fee     :              100/-

Certificate of Marksheet Fee        :              200/-

Class and Practical fee to be decided by each centre. Fee deposited once shall not be refunded. If a candidate submits proper reason for his/her absence in the examination with in the 15 days (after the examination), his/her fee can be adjusted in the next examination only if the Parishad decides. The decision of the Parishad will be final.

  1. Certificate of Examination:

The Parishad will issue the certificate only after passing the examinations according to its schedule. A candidate after passing the DNYS IIIrd year examination will have to undertake 6 months regular practical house job in the centers recognized by the Parishad. After the completion of this training the candidate has to apply for the certificate on the prescribed form duly filled with necessary documents. On submission of the application form along with Rs. 100/- (one hundred) will get the certificate after successful interview &oath for good conduct.

  1. Special Remarks:

Trained candidates will be responsible for their illegal activities. Parishad’s decision to change the rules and regulations shall be final. Jurisdiction area will be within Delhi Territory.

×

Certification in Elementry Naturopathy & Yoga (Pravesh)

Course 1: Certificate in Elementry Naturopathy & Yoga (C.E.N.Y.)

Six Months Course (formerly Pravesh)

Eligibility Criteria

Tenth class or equivalent exception can be made in the case of the personal who have an exception of Nature Cure & Yoga of atleast 10 years and have proficiency in reading and writing Hindi/English.

Syllabus

Number of Papers: One

Maximum Marks: 100

Time: 3 Hrs

History of Naturopathy

Health and Nature Cure

Ram Nam and Nature Cure

Wrong Eating Habit

Gandhian Philosophy of Nature Cure

Five Elements – Space, Air, Water, Earth

Foreign Matters – Definition, Origin and Effects on Body

Raw Eating – Method and Important

Acute and Chronic Diseases – Definition and Clinical Features

Shat Karm, Yog and Pranayam

Asan – Katichakrasana, Tadasana, Konasana, Padamasana, Shavasana, Paschimaotansana, Ardhmatsyenderasana, Uttranpadasana, Gomukhasana, Vajarasana, Chakrasana, Pawan Muktasana, Matasyasana, Dhanurasana, Nokasana, Halasana, Bhujangasana, Tratak, Shalabhasana, Surya Namaskar and Suksham Vyayam

Pranayam Sheetali, Ujjai, Anulom – Vilon, Bhastrika, Bharamrthi, Seetkari, Suryabhedi

DNYS SYLLABUS

medical councils are eligible to enroll himself (M.B.B.S, M.D., M.S., B.D.S, B.A.M.S., B.U.M.S.,B. PHARMA, NURSING DEGREE) directly for the DNYS IInd year course thus they can complete the course with in two and half year duration.

There will also be an additional compulsory paper of general science (100 Marks) for eligible candidate of DNYS Ist year examination who have not studied & passed Biology at Intermediate Examination or CNYT.

  1. Admission Procedure:

A physically and mentally fit candidate who has attained the age of 17 years having the eligibile qualification of the course preferred, shall submit the prescribed enrollment form, obtainable from the office of the Parishad or study centre affiliated with the Parishad on cash Payment of rupees hundred (Rs. 100/-) or Rupess one hundred fifty (Rs. 150/-) by post along with well in advance before the commencement of the course. Selected application form duly filled in and completed must be accompanied with necessary documents. The enrollment stands cancelled automatically after a discontinuity of one regular sessions. This can be renewed on application after a payment of Rupees One Hundred. Further renewal is not allowed.

  1. Method of Teaching:

The study centres will make necessary arrangements of prescribed teaching and training according to the syllabus for the trainies enrolled through them. They can charge the arrangement fees for the same. Arrangements will be made by the Parishad also to provide practical training ith experienced Naturopaths in a reputed Nature Cure centre any where in the country. This will help in learning the practical use of different techniques and modalities of treatments and prevention of reoccurence of the disease. Only actual expenses will have to be borne by the trainee.

  1. Examination Form:

Each enrolled candidate shall be required to submit the duly filled examination form (to be made available from the office of the Parishad) along with prescribed fee. Typedor Photostate forms will not be accepted. Last date for submission of examination form for June examination is 31st March and for December examination it is 30th September. The form can be submitted in the Parishad office with a late fee of Rs. 100/- (One Hundred) upto 45 days before the examination. Form recieved after the last date shall be kept in pending for the next session if so desired by the candidate in advance.

  1. Examination Details:

All Examination centres will be decided by the Parishad and the candidate is bound to appear in the examination from the centre. In case a candidate wished to change the centre, should submit request application 30 days before the commencement of the examiniation with fee of Rs. 100/- (One Hundred) on which Parishad’s decision will be final.

Written examination will be organized in two sessions per day. First session will be held from 9 AM to 12 Noon and second session will be held from 2 PM to 5 PM.

There shall be only one centre in a city for 100 or more candidates. If the number is less than 100 candidates in a city the candidate will be alloted some other centre outside the city/district/state. Parishad can arrange additional centre at its own descretion.

A candidate who failed to appear in the examination on medical grounds has to submit medical certificate along with an application within fifteen days of the examination or their examination fee shall be forfeited. He has to submit his admit card along with a fee of rupees fifty with application on plain paper to appear in the examination atleast 60 days before the examination. Only one session gap is allowed in this case.

A candidate who failed in science only can appear in IInd Year examination but he has to pass this examination before IIIrd year examination of DNYS

A candidate who has failed in one written paper only, can apply for suppllimentary examination scheduled to be held with the next examination along with a fee of rupees two hundred. Acandidate can apply for rechecking after the declaration of the results with in one month along with requisite fee

Viva, Practical & Sessional/Project works is a compulsary part of the examination. Candidates who do not clear Viva, Practical & Sessional/Project work shall be declared uncsuccessful into the relevent examination. Viva, Practical & Sessional/Project work is of 100 marks each.

A candidate whose attendence is very poor during the training, will not be allowed to appear in the examinations.

Minimum pass marks for each paper, viva, practical & sessional/project work is 50%. A candidate who secured 60% or more marks,s will be declared first division. Achievement of 75% or more marks by a candidate will be distinction marks.

Unsuccessful candidate can appear in the next full examination. He/She will have to submit fresh application form along with required examination fee.

Examination details:

There shall be only one written paper in C.E.N.Y.

There shall be one written paper of 100 marks, 100 marks viva and 100 marks practical work in C.N.Y.T.

There shall be two written paper of 100 makrs each, 100 marks viva, 100 marks practical work in D.N.Y.S.

  1. Fees:

Type                     Amount (Rs/INR)

Enrollment Fee   :              100/-

Late Fee               :              200/-

Rechecking Fee  :              200/-

Science Paper Fee            :              200/-

CENY Examination Fee    :              300/-

CNYT Examination Fee    :              400/-

DNYS Ist Year Examination Fee    :              500/-

DNYS IInd Year Examination Fee  :              600/-

DNYS IIIrd Year Examination Fee :              800/-

Parishad Prabha (Subscription Compulsory) Fee     :              100/-

Certificate of Marksheet Fee        :              200/-

Class and Practical fee to be decided by each centre. Fee deposited once shall not be refunded. If a candidate submits proper reason for his/her absence in the examination with in the 15 days (after the examination), his/her fee can be adjusted in the next examination only if the Parishad decides. The decision of the Parishad will be final.

  1. Certificate of Examination:

The Parishad will issue the certificate only after passing the examinations according to its schedule. A candidate after passing the DNYS IIIrd year examination will have to undertake 6 months regular practical house job in the centers recognized by the Parishad. After the completion of this training the candidate has to apply for the certificate on the prescribed form duly filled with necessary documents. On submission of the application form along with Rs. 100/- (one hundred) will get the certificate after successful interview &oath for good conduct.

  1. Special Remarks:

Trained candidates will be responsible for their illegal activities. Parishad’s decision to change the rules and regulations shall be final. Jurisdiction area will be within Delhi Territory.

×

Certification in Naturopathy & Yoga Technique (Upcharak)

Course 3: Diploma in Naturopathy & Yogic Science (D.N.Y.S.)

Three and Half Years Course (including six months House Job)

Eligibility Criteria

Senior Secondary (10+2) or Intermedicate or C.N.Y.T. (Formerly Upcharak) or One/Two Year Diploma in Naturopathy & Yoga form state or central Govt. Recognisd Institution of Diploma in Natuorpathy from Arogya Mandir Gorakhpur. Medical Graduate recognised by Govt. & Registered with the respective medical councils are eligible to enroll himself (M.B.B.S, M.D., M.S., B.D.S, B.A.M.S., B.U.M.S.,B. PHARMA, NURSING DEGREE) directly for the DNYS IInd year course thus they can complete the course with in two and half year duration.

There will also be an additional compulsory paper of general science (100 Marks) for eligible candidate of DNYS Ist year examination who have not studied & passed Biology at Intermediate Examination or CNYT.

Syllabus

DNYS – First Year

  1. Paper: First Paper

Maximum Marks: 100

Time: 3 Hrs

Natural Hygiene and Public Health:

Aims and Basic Principles of disease prevention

Development of Physical, Mental and Spiritual Health

Community Sanitation and Hygiene

Water Supply

Environment Sanitation

Health laws for food

Personal Hygiene: Sun Bath, Colon Hygiene, Rest, Sleep, Personl Cleanliness, Hygiene of eating and drinking

School Hygiene

Din-charya and Ritu-charya

Health Destroying Habits: Pan, Smoking, Tea, Coffee, Drinks

First Aid

Accident Condition

Stopping of Haemorrhage

Type of Bandages

Type of Splint

Fracture and general management

Drawing

Duties of medical practitioners

First Aid in bum injury

General Study of Pathology

Study of sick cells, Functions of Tissues

Inflammation – causes, incubation, vascular phenomenon, Cellular Responses

Gangrene – Dry, Moist and Gas

Repair – Regeneration, Promoting factors

Necrosis

Neoplasm – Carcinogen, Difference between Benign and Malignant Tumours

Digestive Disorders: Peptic Ulcer, Gastritis, Constipation, Dysentery, Jaundice, Cirrhosis of Liver, Ascities, Amoebiasis and Ulcerative Colitis

Cardiovascular Disorders: Rhemuatic fever, congenital heart disease, Heart Failure, Varicose Veins, Hypertension and Hypotension

Respiratory Diseases: Sinusitis, Asthama, Bronchitis, Emphysema, Bronchiectasis, Pneumonia and Tuberculosis

Endocring Disorders: Diabetes, Hyperpituitaries, Hypopitutarism, Hyp and Hyper-thyroidism

  1. Paper: Second Paper

Maximum Marks: 100

Time: 3 Hrs

Systems and their functions:

Bones and their functions

Skeleton Muscle, Cardiac Muscle, Visceral Muscle and their functions

Blood Lymph and its functions

Spleen and its functions

Digestive System, Salivary Glands, Gastric Juice, Pancreatic Juice, Bile Juice, Absorption and Assimilition

Excretory System: Kidney and their function, skin

Respiratory System: Respiration, Carriage of Oxygen into Blood

Central Nervous System: Brain and its functions, Nerves and their functions, Autonomous Nerves and their functions

Circulatory System: Heart and its functions, Pulmonary circulations, Portal system

Special Senses and their functions: Eye, Ear, Nose, Skin and Tongue

Endocrines: Functions of Pituitary, Thyroid, Thymus, Pancreas, Adrenal and Gonads

Anatomy:

Structure of cell, tissues of the body

Bones and their relationship with parts of body

Muscle of legs, hands, trunk, face and eyes

Important joints

The Digestive System: Mount, Oesophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, Rectum, Liver, Pancreas

The Reproductive System: Male and Female reproductive organs

Respiratory System: Nose, Pharynx, Trachea, Lungs

Circulatory System: Heart, Blood essels and Lymphatic system

The Nervous System: Autonomous Nervous System, Brain, Spinal Cord, Cranial Nervers

Special Sense Organs: Tonge, Nose, Eye, Ear and Skin

Endorine System: The pineal gland, the Pituitary gland, Thymus, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal gland, Pancreas and Gonads

The Excretory System: Kidney, Ureter, Urniary, Bladder, Urethra, Skin

  1. Viva

Maximum Marks: 60

  1. Practical

Maximum Marks: 20

  1. Sessional/Project Work

Maximum Marks: 20

DNYS – Second Year

  1. Paper: First Paper

Maximum Marks: 100

Time: 3 Hrs

Philosophy of Nature Cure:

History and the Principle of Nature Cure

Gandhian Philosophy of Nature

Panchtantra and laws of Nature

Method of Nature of Preservation and importance, general health, fasting, Natural diet, Excercise, Regular habits, Rest and Relaxation hunger etc.

How to acquire natural immunity to diseases?

Healing Crisis and Diseases Crises

Toxins and Anti toxins and their eliminations

Supporession of disease and its consequences

Importance of right mental attitude

Vaccination and their ill effects

Science of Facical Expression

Foreign matter theory – Definition and formation of foreign matter

Accumulation of foreign matter, liquids and solids, dry and gaseous form

Bad habits and accumulation of foreign matter

Encumbrances – types and characters

Elimination of foreign matter and how to increase the vitality

  1. Paper: Second Paper

Maximum Marks: 100

Time: 3 Hrs

Nature Cure Methods and Practice

Hydrotherapy

Physical Properties of wATER

Principal of Hydrotherapy

Physiological effects of water applications, respiration, digestion, action and reaction

Classification of Hydrotherapy Prescriptions

Primary Effects

Excitant Effects

Internal Excitation

Secondary Exitant Effects

Restorative effects

Tonic effects

Expectroant effects

Resultive and Derivative effects

General and Local Sedative effects

The technique of Hydrotherapy:

Water drinking

Effusions

Irrigation-irration of nose, stomach, colon and recium

Douches, Scotch Douche, Spinal Douche, Alternate Douche

Packs: Chest packs, Trunk packs, Partic packs, T. packs, Leg Packs, Local Packs, Full Wet Sheet Packs

Baths: Hip Bath, Spinal Bath, Sitz, Foot Bath, Imersion Baths

Vapour Baths, Steam Bath and Air Baths, Ice treatments

Mud Therapy

Types of Mud

Collection and properties of mud

Mud Poultices

Genral and Local Mud Applications

The Physiological and Pathological effects and Contraindications

Chromo Therapy

Types of Colours – Primary and Secondar

Chromophyllosphy

Chromo Hygiene

Limitations of Chromo therapy

Physiological use of Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet

Charging of Air, Water, Oils, Foodstuffs, Clycerin Vaseline, Raw Sugar, Milk, Rose-Water etc.

  1. Viva

Maximum Marks: 100

  1. Practical:Every student will be required to undergo minimum 10-15 days practical training

Maximum Marks: 20

  1. Sessional/Project Work

Maximum Marks: 100

ECG SYLLABUS

Academy India : Course Syllabus

ECG basically called as “electrocardiogram” is a kind of medicinal test to measures the act of heart. Through the ECG test, the electrically recorded of the heart beating that reflects usually on paper, keeps records any diseases and helps in discovering the diseases, especially analyze the potential of heart attacks. Such varied importance makes it most popular part of medical science and become also the part of medical study to make physician able to read carefully measurement of cardiac. ECG academy India offers ranges of ECG certificate courses to skilled fresher’s or professional physician about ECG. Through our course syllabus, you can find info on complete ECG concepts designed by institution.

INTRODUCTION

What is the ECG Academy?

ENGINEERING CONCEPTS

Basic electrical concepts – what is electricity

Electrical circuits

How we record electrical events

INTRO TO THE HEART

Cardiac tissues and electricity

Cardiac Action Potentials

3-D Anatomy of the heart

Cardiac conduction system

Electrical events of the heart

ECG RECORDING BASICS

ECG recording systems

ECG electrode: correct placement

ECG electrodes: incorrect placement

Intrinsic problems with ECG systems: Artifacts

ECG LEAD BASICS

The basics of ECG “leads”

Frontal or Limb leads

Chest or Precordial leads

THE NORMAL ECG

The ECG signal: First impressions

Analyzing size and timing/duration of signals

Determining heart rate

ECG Interval measurements 1

ECG Interval measurements 2: Practice

NORMAL SINUS RHYTHM

Recognizing NSR

Sinus bradycardia / sinus tachycardia

Sinus arrhythmia

SINUS NODE DYSFUNCTION

Sinus bradycardia

Sinus pause / sinus arrest

SA Exit Block

AV NODE DYSFUNCTION

Basic concepts of AV block

First degree AV block

Second degree AV block

Third degree AV block

INTRAVENTRICULAR CONDUCTION DISTURBANCES

Concepts of intraventricular conduction

Types of IVCDs

Functional / Rate-related IVCDs: “Aberrant conduction”

PREMATURE BEATS

Concepts of premature beats

Atrial premature beats

Ventricular premature beats

Other premature beats

ATRIAL TACHYCARDIA

Definitions of atrial tachycardia

Sustained supraventricular tachycardia

Atrial tachycardia with AV Block

Atrial tachycardia with aberrant conduction

Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia / Wandering Atrial Pacemaker

ATRIAL FLUTTER

Diagnosing atrial flutter

Atrial flutter with 2:1 conduction

Unusual forms of atrial flutter

ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

Introduction to atrial fibrillation

Examples of atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation with aberrant conduction

VENTRICULAR TACHYARRHYTHMIAS

Ventricular tachyarrhythmias – definitions

Accelerated idioventricular rhythm

Monomorphic ventricular tachycardia

Polymorphic VT / ventricular fibrillation

VECTORS AND ECG AXIS

Physiology of the QRS axis

Determining the axis

Causes of axis deviation

Other axis considerations / anatomical regions

ATRIAL ABNORMALITIES

P-wave axis

Left atrial abnormality

Right atrial abnormality / Biatrial abnormality

HYPERTROPHY

Left ventricular hypertrophy

Right ventricular hypertrophy

BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCKS

Right bundle branch block

Left bundle branch block

Other IVCDs

HEMIBLOCKS

Introduction to hemiblocks

Left anterior hemiblock

Left posterior hemiblock / septal hemiblock

Bifascicular block

ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

Coronary anatomy and physiology

Coronary events and the ECG

Ischemia and myocardial infarction

More examples of ischemia and infarction

OTHER ST ABNORMALITIES

“Secondary” ST abnormalities

“Primary” and non-specific ST abnormalities

Pericarditis and early repolarization

MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS IN ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY

Low voltage / Lead reversal

Electrolyte / metabolic disturbances/Introduction to pacemakers